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Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

Standby UPS

Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) can be essential components of standby power-distribution systems to protect equipment from events such as power interruptions, voltage variations, frequency variations, and transient disturbances.
A UPS is a stored energy system that provides ride-through power to critical equipment between the loss of normal — utility — power and the facility standby generators coming online, as well as during an orderly shutdown of the equipment. A standby UPS, also called an offline UPS, is the most common small unit facilities use in personal computer applications. Under normal conditions, the standby UPS draws alternating current (AC) from utility power and switches to battery power within a few milliseconds after detecting a power failure. A standby UPS also provides noise filtration and surge suppression for improved power quality.
UPSes for consumer and small-business purposes come in standby and line interactive versions. Standby units keep their battery ready for on-demand, automatic use, but it’s otherwise on standby, as its name indicates. A line interactive version feeds power through an inverter from the wall to connected devices while also charging the battery. It can condition power, smoothing out highs and lows, and switch over to the battery within a few milliseconds. (Other flavors are much more expensive or intended for critical systems and higher power consumption.)
A standby model typically relies on dealing with excess voltage by having inline metal-oxide varistors (MOVs), just as in standalone surge protectors. These MOVs shift power to ground, but eventually burn out after extensive use.
For power sags and undervoltage, a standby model will tap the battery. If it happens frequently or in quick succession, your UPS might not be up to the task and provide enough delay that a desktop system or hard drive loses power long enough to halt its operating system or crash.
Advantages of UPS

Line interactive UPS

Full power outages are the most feared power disturbance events as they can have devastating effects − on businesses of all sizes. And no country can consider itself safe from such interruptions.

A Line-interactive UPS is one type of uninterruptible power source that can regulate voltage automatically. The line-interactive technology responds to high and low voltage conditions. Units also support systems during outages without battery drainage. With a line-interactive UPS, the electrical source is the first line of power; however, an inverter/converter technology allows for the unit’s battery to be charged throughout normal operations. During an outage, this UPS converts battery power to AC flow for device delivery.

Advantage and disadvantages of line interactive ups
Line-interactive UPS Systems for IT Applications
Within the category of power protection products, line-interactive UPS systems will safeguard sensitive equipment during brownouts and blackouts. Units in the line-interactive UPS classification are more expensive than standby models but more affordable than an on-line UPS unit. A line-interactive UPS will maintain performance during low voltage situations and short-term power failures. If a lengthy outage is anticipated, its battery power allows devices to be shut down safely. Some live interactive units also offer filtering features.
There are plenty of options for protecting your network. But with so many different types of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems available, the challenge is selecting the one that best matches your needs and budget. For 120 V equipment loads up to 3,000 VA, on-line, double-conversion UPS systems and network-grade line-interactive UPS systems both offer high-performance protection.
Network-grade line-interactive UPS systems provide highly reliable protection to your network and connected equipment.
Benefits Include :
Extremely fast transfer time. Because the inverter is not active during normal operation, there’s a tiny delay – typically 2 to 4 milliseconds – during the transfer from AC power to battery backup power. The delay is barely detectable, however, and it is rare for it to cause issues with connected equipment.
Standby-Ferro UPS
In the standby-Ferro design, the inverter is always in the standby mode and is put into motion when the input power fails when the transfer switch is opened.
The Standby-Ferro UPS was once the dominant form of UPS in the 3-15kVA range. This design depends on a special saturating transformer that has three windings (power connections). The primary power path is from AC input, through a transfer switch, through the transformer, and to the output. In the case of a power failure, the transfer switch is opened, and the inverter picks up the output load. In the Standby-Ferro design, the inverter is in the standby mode, and is energized when the input power fails and the transfer switch is opened.
The transformer has a special “Ferro-resonant” capability, which provides limited voltage regulation and output waveform “shaping”. The isolation from AC power transients provided by the Ferro transformer is as good as or better than any filter available. But the Ferro transformer itself creates severe output voltage distortion and transients, which can be worse than a poor AC connection. Even though it is a standby UPS by design, the Standby-Ferro generates a great deal of heat because the Ferro-resonant transformer is inherently inefficient. These transformers are also large relative to regular isolation transformers; so standby-Ferro UPS are generally quite large and heavy.
Standby-Ferro UPS systems are frequently represented as On-Line units, even though they have a transfer switch, the inverter operates in the standby mode, and they exhibit a transfer characteristic during an AC power failure.
The primary benefit of this design is high reliability and excellent line filtering.
Double Conversion Online UPS
Online UPS, also known as Voltage and Frequency Independent (VFI), offer the premium power protection demanded by your mission-critical and sensitive equipment. UPS’s online uninterruptible power supplies employ sophisticated double conversion technology which effectively isolates your critical load from virtually all types of power problems.
These UPS systems provide your facility the highest level of protection by isolating the equipment from raw utility power. The system works by converting power from AC to DC and then back to AC.
This unit is the only UPS that provides power with zero transfer time to the battery, making it ideal for sensitive equipment. That’s why it’s the best option for any facility with mission-critical equipment and in locations with poor power conditions.
An Online double conversion UPS System has an internal static bypass. This ensuring that if your UPS experiences a failure or requires maintenance. You may be able to keep your critical loads online during repair or replacement.
The true measure for any UPS system is how well it can protect critical equipment from the grid. Cost of downtime is paramount in deciding what level of protection a facility requires.
So, why these Online, Double Conversion UPS systems are best for perfect protection.
There are many reasons for their selection, and here they go
Nexus, an established manufacturer of online and off-line UPS systems with many success stories and firsts to their credit builds the UPS with world class highest quality standards by using the World trusted branded components from the original manufacturers, from last more than thirty years. Their UPS are exclusively built to fit the most stringent Indian harsh weather conditions to perform year after year without fail. They were the first and the only manufacturer to manufacture 4KVA Line Interactive UPS. Way back in 1989 they were also the first to launch Ferro resonant type online UPS System with CVCC charger. Here they didn’t stop, they are even the first and the only manufacturer in India to design 10 watts Line Interactive UPS system.
There are four main components in any online double conversion uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system:
Rectifier; UPS Batteries; Inverter; and Static Bypass Switch.
Depending on the size and type of UPS, there are several other common components that may be included, for example, fans or capacitors.
In addition, there are also components such as an External Maintenance Bypass, which enables the UPS to be removed and/or replaced without interrupting the load, Transient Volt Surge Suppressors (TVSS), and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-compliant monitoring and communications applications.
Delta Conversion Online UPS
In addition, there are also components such as an External Maintenance Bypass, which enables the UPS to be removed and/or replaced without interrupting the load, Transient Volt Surge Suppressors (TVSS), and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-compliant monitoring and communications applications.
Delta conversion technology saves energy by carrying the package only the difference (delta) between the starting and ending points. The double conversion on-line UPS converts the power to the battery and back again whereas the delta converter moves components of the power from input to output.
The delta converter acts to control the input power characteristics. This active front end draws power in a sinusoidal manner, minimizing harmonics reflected on to the utility, ensuring optimal utility and generator system compatibility. The second function of the delta converter is to control input current to regulate charging of the battery system.
The delta conversion on-line UPS provides the same output characteristics as the double conversion on-line design. However, the input characteristics are often different. Delta conversion on-line designs provide dynamically power factor corrected input, without the inefficient use of the filter banks associated with traditional solutions. The most important benefit is a significant reduction in energy
loss. The input power control also makes the UPS compatible with all generator sets and reduces the need for wiring and generator oversizing.

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